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Formative Pruning to create a Standard, Half Standard or Bush tree.

These styles of tree represent most peoples idea of a fruit tree, consisting of a goblet shaped canopy.
A standard tree has a long clear trunk of around 1.5 to 1.8m
A half standard tree has a clear trunk of around 1.2 to 1.5m
whereas a bush has a relatively short trunk, the fashion in the 1960s was for around 60cm, which is too short to get a lawn mower under the branches. 90cm is more manageable
They are trained as follows:

First year

On planting. Install tree support
Adjust graft union to a minimum of 10cm (preferably 15cm to allow for mulch) above the soil level.
At the height at which the canopy is desired, head back the leader above 4-5 good buds, which are to create the canopy.
If a feathered maiden is being used, select a point above 4-5 good branches and reduce feathers by one half to an outward facing bud. If any branches remain below shorten by half. 5-10cm of growth
Attach a clothes peg so as to promote wide crotch angle on new side shoots
Late August Shorten any growth below the canopy to basal cluster plus three leaves.

Second year

Dormant Select the three best branches, remove the others. Head back if necessary.
Reduce new seasons growth by ⅓ (for vigorous growth)½ (for less vigorous growth) depending on vigour. (leaving 15-22cm of wood) The head should be balanced and the cuts made to an outward facing bud.
Remove growth below the canopy flush to the main stem.
Remove any adventitious growth not required.
MayRemove blossom
JuneRe-direct upright branches

Third year

DormantReduce new seasons growth by ⅓(for vigorous growth)- ½ (for less vigorous growth) depending on vigour.
Inward growing branches should be cut out completely.
Completely remove any branches coming from the trunk below the canopy
MayRemove blossom
AugustShorten spurs to 22cm/9inches.

Fourth year

DormantReduce new seasons growth by ⅓(for vigorous growth)- ½ (for less vigorous growth) depending on vigour.
Remove any branches that cross or are growing into the centre of the tree.
Completely remove any branches coming from the trunk below the canopy
Shorten spurs to 3 buds