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Formative Pruning to create an espalier trained tree.

trained against a wall, fence panel or a free standing post and wire arangement, using a product such as the Gripple Trellising System, espalier trained trees look complex but by following the guide below good results can be obtained.
They are trained as follows:

First year

On planting. Install wire supports, first wire at 45cm and addition wires at 30cm intervals
Identify good buds to grow left, right and vertically at the height of the first wire and then adjust graft union to a minimum of 10cm (preferably 15cm to allow for mulch) above the soil level.
Head back to the bud to grow vertically.
10cm growth Use bamboo canes to train the central shoot vertically and for the arms train at 45°.
August Tie down the arms to the horizontal, leaving the leading 22cm at 45°.
Prune any laterals to basal cluster plus 3 leaves.

Second year

Dormant Identify good buds to grow left, right and vertically at the height of the next wire.
Head back to the bud to grow vertically.
10cm growth Use bamboo canes to train the central shoot vertically and for the arms train at 45°.
August Tie down the arms to the horizontal, leaving the leading 22cm at 45°.
Prune any laterals to basal cluster plus 3 leaves.

Third to fifth year (or until the top wire is reached)

Dormant Identify good buds to grow left, right and vertically at the height of the next wire.
Head back to the bud to grow vertically.
10cm growth Use bamboo canes to train the central shoot vertically and for the arms train at 45°.
June Thin fruit to achieve an annual crop.
August Tie down the arms to the horizontal, leaving the leading 22cm at 45°.
Prune any laterals to basal cluster plus 3 leaves.
Prune sub laterals to basal cluster plus 1 leaf.
Where the final wire has been reached and winter pruned, reduce central leader growth to basal cluster plus 3 leaves.

Mature tree pruning

Dormant If fruiting spurs are too long prune back to about 3cm from the laterals.
Thin fruiting spurs so as to allow fruit development.
June Thin fruit to achieve an annual crop.
August Tie down the arms to the horizontal, leaving the leading 22cm at 45°.
Prune any laterals to basal cluster plus 3 leaves.
Prune sub laterals to basal cluster plus 1 leaf.